Layton Ditch Headworks (Southwest Oregon) 08-Feb-2022

Between 1874 and 1877, Chinese laborers hand dug a 21-mile (34 km) long ditch to bring water from the Pipe Fork of the East Fork of Williams Creek to J.T. Layton’s hydraulic gold mines in Bamboo and Ferris Gulches. Although profitable (not something you can say for most mines around here), the gold-bearing alluvium feeding these mines eventually played-out. So, by the 1920s, this ditch (and others like it) had been abandoned and mostly forgotten. But its alignment and the ditch tender trail next to it remained. Then the restoration of the Sterling Mine Ditch Trail in the mid-2000s showed how these old ditches could become highly popular hiking and riding venues. For the Layton Ditch, the Williams Community Forest Project teamed with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to restore 13 miles of it as a hiking and riding trail. ๐Ÿ˜ƒ

We hiked part of the restored Layton north from Panther Gap to the Chinese Wall in 2017 and then again in 2021. In 2018, I hiked the trail south from Panther Gap to what seemed like its end where the Pipe Fork turns to become the East Fork of Williams Creek. But the ditch ended well above the creek and it wasn’t clear how water got from one to the other. A little archival research revealed that Layton had invested in a 600 foot (183 m) long inverted siphon (a sag pipe), constructed with 36 inch (91 cm) iron pipe, to convey water from the Pipe Fork across the Williams Creek divide. This was a historic first for hydraulic mining in Southern Oregon. But I saw no sign of this pipe at the end of the ditch on the east side of the divide.

Sag pipe schematic: HT is Pipe Fork, RT is end of ditch on the east side of Williams Creek

Layton didn’t document his sag pipe with any images, but it and its burial probably looked a lot like the sag pipe being installed at the La Grange Mine in Trinity County, California in 1915.

La Grange Mine sag pipe (1915)

I went back later in 2018 to look for this pipe on the north side of Pipe Fork. Although I had a nice hike on an old forest road that was reverting to single-track, there was no sign of the pipe. I got to thinking that it had been carted off for use elsewhere (or for scrap) sometime in the last 100 years. It didn’t dawn on me then that the reason I didn’t see any pipe was maybe because Layton had buried it! Then a few days ago, Randy and Rich (from the Ashland Hiking Group) went to the end of the ditch and found a piece of pipe and more ditch – but up the slope on the south side of the Pipe Fork.

Their find made me wonder whether any of these old features would show on Lidar imagery, something Oregon’s Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) has now accomplished for much of the state. Lidar has been a boon to Central American archaeology because it lets you “see” features under a tree canopy. It does the same for pine forests as it does for tropical forests. So, sure enough, you can easily pick-out the Layton Ditch on both sides of the Williams Creek divide, as well as the trench where the sag pipe was placed. I think the pipe itself was removed years ago but its trench remains. The supplemental ditch going to an intermittent stream to the south was a surprise, as it’s not mentioned in any of the old mining literature. But hydraulic mines are water hogs, so Layton was obviously not going to miss an easy chance to collect more water.

DOGAMI Lidar image: (1) Layton Ditch, (2) Upstream end of the sag pipe, (3) Head of the main ditch, (4) Head of a supplemental ditch, (5) East Fork Road; red arrow is direction of flow through the sag pipe

Of course, I had to go see this piece of pipe for myself. The LovedOne, perhaps less enamored of old rusty pipe, elected to stay home and attach buttons to a giant pink sweater she’d just finished knitting. ๐Ÿ™„

You can reach the head of the Layton from the north from a gated spot on East Fork Road. But, after some map gazing, I found a BLM road that would take me to the ridge above the ditch on the east side of the divide. From there, it was relatively easy to drop down to the ditch trail and follow it south to its end above Williams Creek.

Going south on the Layton Ditch Trail
Almost to the end
I now knew that the sag pipe had gone directly downhill (arrows) from the end of the ditch

It’s much easier to find something once you know it was there and where it was there. From the end of the ditch, I followed the now obvious alignment of the old pipe down, across East Fork Road, and up the slope on the west side of the divide to the remaining piece of sag pipe.

Remains of the pipe, stuck in the wall of the ditch
Riveted sheet metal – 150 years old
The rest of the pipe is gone

The pipe sits at the confluence of the main ditch from the Pipe Fork and the supplemental ditch coming in from the south. I didn’t try to follow the ditch going south because it soon crosses on to private land. Instead, I followed the main ditch around and into the quite deep canyon of the Pipe Fork. This ditch is still well defined at first but soon becomes filled with eroded soil.

The supplemental ditch going south
The still visible main ditch going to the Pipe Fork

After 150 years, I had no expectation of finding any headworks where the ditch contacted the Pipe Fork. These may not have been all that much back in the day – just enough rocks and boards to divert water into the ditch. The Pipe Fork was peaceful today but, judging by the canyon it has dug in the flanks of Grayback Mountain, it’s probably capable of high flows during Spring runoff. So why invest in an elaborate headworks if it’s likely to be washed away every year?

The Pipe Fork near where the ditch reaches it
Pipe Fork

On my return, I left the ditch trail at a low point along the ridge, climbed to the road, and walked it back to where I’d parked. This proved to be an easier and much less brushy way of connecting the road and the ditch.

Back along the ditch
And then along the road

And that was it – pipe found, headworks visited, and a little bit of local history revealed for a wrap on the Layton Ditch story. While I’m interested in the mechanics of historic mining (stamps mills, adits, sag pipes, tramways, etc.), I am also fascinated (and sometimes stunned) by the lengths to which people will go in (the often faint) hope of pulling wealth out of the ground. Too often this greed (requited or not) left wreckage and ruin in its wake – tailing piles, open pits, acid runoff, ghost towns, railroads to nowhere, exploited labor. Here, at least, we were left with a pleasant, shady trail (thanks to much volunteer effort) connecting two pieces of Southern Oregon’s mining history – the Chinese Wall to the north and the sag pipe to the south. Well worth a visit! ๐Ÿ˜

Red: today’s track, Purple: Supplemental ditch, Blue: Hike above the north side of the Pipe Fork
(1) End of the main ditch, (2) Upstream end of the sag pipe, (3) Headworks on the Pipe Fork, (4) Headworks for the supplemental ditch, (5) East Fork Road

8 thoughts on “Layton Ditch Headworks (Southwest Oregon) 08-Feb-2022

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  1. You see a lot of interesting old mining stuff, cabins, etc. on your hikes. There wasn’t much of that here to start with and much of that is long gone or on private land. So finding something accessible that’s 150+ years old is a big deal here (to me at least ๐Ÿ˜).

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  2. I wondered about that gate. I figured if it was closed, I’d just walk up the road to where it curves to the north and then go XC to the end of the ditch. That wouldn’t add much to the hike.


  3. Great write-up Thanks. Years ago I helped survey and design the BLM road to the ridge above Layton. Also watched the bottomless arch installed on Thompson Creek. The WCFP guy says the gate at the bottom is sometimes closed sometimes open, so that access to the trail is kinda iffy.


  4. I just had to finish the Layton Ditch saga. I was surprised that the second ditch was in good a shape as it is. Yes, it needs work but (fortunately) not a complete re-build. A better trailhead at the south end of the trail would be nice too.


  5. Thanks for going back to Layton Bruce and putting all the pieces of the puzzle together. I talked with Greg of WCFP and he said they would work on clearing that second ditch after they finish clearing Lower Layton.


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